Methods in Behavioral and Ecological Sciences
by John Byers and Collaborators

Pityogenes spp. Convert male/female proportions to sex ratios:
Byers, J.A. & Wood, D.L. 1980. Interspecific inhibition of the response of the bark beetles, Dendroctonus brevicomis and Ips paraconfusus, to their pheromones in the field. Journal of Chemical Ecology 6:149-164.
Electronic timer:
Byers, J.A. 1981. Versatile electronic timer for synchronous switching of multiple electrical devices. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 13:381-383.
Electronic thermometer:
Byers, J.A., & Poinar, G.O., Jr. 1982. Location of insect hosts by the nematode, Neoaplectana carpocapsae, in response to temperature. Behaviour 79:1-10.
Electronic fraction collector:
Byers, J.A. 1983. Electronic fraction collector used for insect sampling in the photoperiod-induced diel emergence of bark beetles. Physiological Entomology. 8:133-138.
Sunrise/Sunset light dimmer:
Byers, J.A., & Unkrich, M.A. 1983. Electronic light intensity control to simulate dusk and dawn conditions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 76:556-558.
Ips typographus Multiprobe thermometers and multiplexed chart recording:
Byers, J.A. 1984a. Electronic multiprobe thermometer and multiplexer for recording temperatures of microenvironments in the forest litter habitat of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology 13:863-867.
Nearest neighbor and MAD analysis:
Byers, J.A. 1984b. Nearest neighbor analysis and simulation of distribution patterns indicates an attack spacing mechanism in the bark beetle, Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology 13:1191-1200.
Fraction collector:
Byers, J.A. 1987. Novel fraction collector for studying the oviposition rhythm in the turnip moth. Chronobiology International 4:189-194.
Rotating windvane traps:
Byers, J.A. 1988a. Upwind flight orientation to pheromone in western pine beetle tested with rotating windvane traps. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14:189-198.
Diffusion-dilution release of semiochemicals - part I:
Byers, J.A. 1988b. Novel diffusion-dilution method for release of semiochemicals: Testing pheromone component ratios on western pine beetle. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14:199-212.
EAR Method to compare attractants and estimate flying insect densities:
Byers, J.A., Anderbrant, O., & Lfqvist, J. 1989. Effective attraction radius: A method for comparing species attractants and determining densities of flying insects. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15:749-765.
Slow-rotating traps:
Byers, J.A., Schlyter, F., Birgersson, G., & Francke, W. 1990b. E- Myrcenol in Ips duplicatus: An aggregation pheromone component new for bark beetles. Experientia 46:1209-1211.
Simulation of animal encounter rates:
Byers, J.A. 1991a. Simulation of mate-finding behaviour of pine shoot beetles, Tomicus piniperda. Animal Behaviour 41:649-660.abstract button
Experimental design and randomized sampling programs I:
Byers, J.A. 1991b. BASIC algorithms for random sampling and treatment randomization. Computers in Biology and Medicine 21:69-77.abstract button
Scientific reference management:
Byers, J.A. 1991c. Cardcat: A scientific reference manager for IBM- compatible personal computers. American Entomologist 37:240-242.abstract button
Density analysis and visualization program:
Byers, J.A. 1992a. Grid cell contour mapping of point densities: bark beetle attacks, fallen pine shoots, and infested trees. Oikos 63:233-243.abstract button
Compare manuscript references program:
Byers, J.A. 1992b. Ref-list: Program to list references found in DOS text files of scientific manuscripts. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 8:196-198.abstract button
Dirichlet cell density analysis program:
Byers, J.A. 1992c. Dirichlet tessellation of bark beetle spatial attack points. Journal of Animal Ecology 61:759-768.abstract button
Database program:
Byers, J.A. 1992d. Trends in chemical ecology revealed with a personal computer program for searching data bases of scientific references and abstracts. Journal of Chemical Ecology 18:1481-1495.
Optimal fractionation of semiochemicals program:
Byers, J.A. 1992e. Optimal fractionation and bioassay plans for isolation of synergistic chemicals: the subtractive-combination method. Journal of Chemical Ecology 18:1603-1621.abstract button
Experimental design and randomized sampling programs II:
Byers, J.A. 1993a. Randomization algorithms in BASIC for experimental design. Computers in Biology and Medicine 23:167-176.abstract button
Iterative equations to predict insect control by pheromone traps:
Byers, J.A. 1993b. Simulation and equation models of insect population control by pheromone-baited traps. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19:1939-1956.abstract button
BIOSIS reference management program:
Byers, J.A. 1993c. Conversion of BIOSIS Previews database files to reference text files and reprint request forms. American Entomologist 39:245-248.abstract button
Diffusion-dilution release of semiochemicals - part II:
Byers, J.A. 1993d. Orientation of bark beetles Pityogenes chalcographus and Ips typographus to pheromone-baited puddle traps placed in grids: A new trap for control of scolytids. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19:2297-2316.
Experimental design and randomized sampling programs III:
Byers, J.A. 1996a. Random selection algorithms for spatial and temporal sampling. Computers in Biology and Medicine 26:41-52.abstract button
Iterative equations for animal-host plant encounter rates:
Byers, J.A. 1996b. An encounter rate model of bark beetle populations searching at random for susceptible host trees. Ecological Modelling 91:57-66.
Hylurgops Universal taxonomic key program:
Byers, J.A. 1996c. Taxokey: a universal taxonomic key program using DOS text files and graphics. Computer Applications in the Biosciences 12:185-189.abstract button
Dirichlet cell density analysis program:
Byers, J.A. 1996d. Correct calculation of Dirichlet polygon areas. Journal of Animal Ecology 65:528-529.
Dispersal analysis by catch on pheromone trap rings (a program):
Byers, J.A. 1999. Effects of attraction radius and flight paths on catch of scolytid beetles dispersing outward through rings of pheromone traps. Journal of Chemical Ecology 25:985-1005.
Predicted dispersal distance I:
Byers, J.A. 2000. Wind-aided dispersal of simulated bark beetles flying through forests. Ecological Modelling 125:231-243.
Predicted dispersal distance II:
Byers, J.A. 2001. Correlated random walk equations of animal dispersal resolved by simulation. Ecology 82:1680-1690.
Hylurgops Piezoelectric sprayer for dispensing semiochemicals:
El-Sayed, A.M. & Byers, J.A. 2000. Inhibitory effect of monoterpenes on response of Pityogenes bidentatus to aggregation pheromone released by piezoelectric sprayer for precision release of semiochemicals. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26:1795-1809.
Wire heaters used in GC-EAD:
Byers, J.A. 2004. Equations for nickel-chromium wire heaters of column transfer lines in gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Journal of Neuroscience Methods 135:89-93.
Java Program for IPM Areawide Models of synchronous versus asynchronous treatments More efficient IPM control methods (a simulation model):
Byers, J.A. and Castle, S.J. 2005. Areawide models comparing synchronous versus asynchronous treatments for control of dispersing insect pests. Journal of Economic Entomology 98:1763-1773. pdf
Numbers of moth pheromone isomers (a program):
Byers, J.A. 2005. Chemical constraints on the evolution of olfactory communication channels of moths. Journal of Theoretical Biology 235:199-206. pdf
Black Swallotail (orange dog) caterpillar on Kumquat Leaf Analysis and Description of Biological Colors (software):
Byers, J.A. 2006. Analysis of insect and plant colors in digital images using Java software on the Internet. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99:865-874. pdf
Lygus hesperus, male and female on cotton leaf IDP - Initial Discharge Percentage:
Byers, J.A. 2006. Production and predator-induced release of volatile chemicals by the plant bug Lygus hesperus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32:2205-2218. pdf
Model in Java of mating disruption or mass trapping with competitive attraction and camouflage Simulation Model of Mating Disruption and Mass Trapping:
Byers, J.A. 2007. Simulation of mating disruption and mass trapping with competitive attraction and camouflage. Environmental Entomology 36:1328-1338. pdf
Comparison of Active Space Model with EAR Model in Java Active Space versus EAR (effective attraction radius):
Byers, J.A. 2008. Active space of pheromone plume and its relationship to effective attraction radius in applied models. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34:1134-1145. pdf
Insects in 3-Dimensional Flight of Normal Distribution 3D Flight of Insects according to Normal Distribution - Confirming EAR and EARc:
Byers, J.A. 2009. Modeling distributions of flying insects: Effective attraction radius of pheromone in two and three dimensions. Journal of Theoretical Biology 256:81-89. pdf
Sol-gels for Dispensing Semiochemicals in Field Sol-gels for Dispensing Semiochemicals in the Field:
Zada, A., Falach, L., and Byers, J.A. 2009. Development of sol-gel formulations for slow release of pheromones. Chemoecology 19:37-45. pdf
Mean flight height and SD Analysis of Vertical Flight Distributions, Mean Height of Flight and SD:
Byers, J.A. 2011. Analysis of vertical distributions and effective flight layers of insects: Three-dimensional simulation of flying insects and catch at trap heights. Environmental Entomology 40:1210-1222. pdf
Estimating flight density from EAR Estimating Insect Flight Densities from Effective Attraction Radius:
Byers, J.A. 2012. Estimating insect flight densities from attractive trap catches and flight height distributions. Journal of Chemical Ecology 38:592-601. pdf
Java software to simulate mass trapping of searching females (some other insects) or males (moths) Female or Male Mass Trapping:
Byers, J.A. 2012. Modelling female mating success during mass trapping and natural competitive attraction of searching males or females. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 145:228-237. pdf
Java software to simulate dose-response curves and antennal saturation Dose-Response Curve Analysis:
Byers, J.A. 2013. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior. Journal of Chemical Ecology 39:1081-1089. pdf
(c) 1997-2012 by John A. Byers
homepage and (c) by John A. Byers